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Natural Vitamin K2 is part of the family of Vitamin K, a group of fat-soluble compounds having hemostatic, anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities.

Vitamin K members have a common chemical structure, the recognized function group (methylated naphthoquinone ring), but differ for the different aliphatic side chains, that influence absorption, transport, tissue distribution and bioavailability.

k1 K1 (Phylloquinone)

Involved in the regulation of blood coagulation

Green vegetable

Green vegetables

K2 (Menaquinone)

Made up of 14 different isomers involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation and in the metabolism and regulation of bone and soft tissue calcification.

Intestinal bacteria

Intestinal bacteria

Fermented foods

Fermented foods

k3 Vitamins K3, K4 and K5

Three synthetic forms of vitamin K. K3 (Menadione) is a provitamin converted in the body after ingestion.

Overwhelming research shows natural Vitamin K2 and especially its key isomers MK-7 and MK-4 to be very effective in bone health and heart diseases prevention. Besides its role in bone health and cardiovascular, heart benefits new functions are recently emerging.

Vitamin K2 as long chain Menaquinone-7 shows highest activity in humans than vitamin K2 as MK-4. Higher efficacy of MK-7 is due to its better bioavailability and longer half-life compared to other homologs. For maximum effect in the body, MK-7 is thus the optimal source of vitamin K. Vitamin K2 as MK-7 requires a minimum dose of 45 µg/day to activate osteocalcin Carboxylation in healthy subjects; in contrast MK-4 needs a minimum dose of 1500 μg/day.

Comparison of Bioavailability of vitamin K2 as MK-7 versus vitamin K1 and MK-4

MK-7 vs K1

Adapted from Schurgers et al., "Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7." Blood. 2007

MK-7 vs MK4

Adapted from Sato et al., «Comparison of Menaquinone-4 and Menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women». Nutritional Journal 2012

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